David Designs

Web Design

What is MySQL

MySQL is the world most used open source relational database management system as of 2008 that runs as a server providing multiuser access to a number of databases. The SQL phrase stands for Structure Query Language.
MySQL it’s a popular choice of database for use in web applications, and is a central component of a widely used LAMP open source web application software stack. LAMP is an acronym for “Linux, Apache, MySQL, Pearl/PHP/Python.”
Free-software-open source projects that require a full-feature database management often use MySQL. For commercial use, several paid edition are available, and offer additional functionality.
Applications which use MySQL databases include: TYPO3, Joomla, Word Press, phpBB, MyBB, Drupal, etc. MySQL is also used in Wikipedia, Google, Facebook, Twitter, Nokia.com, and You Tube.

I’d recommend you take a look at SQLYog. The free version is already rather good, but the paid version also has visual schema editing and comparison features.
SQLyog is another popular SQL management tool that has a couple of useful features such as visual schema designer, visual query builder, intelligent code completion and a data / structure synchronization. It support HTTP / HTTPs / SSH tunneling and SSL connections. You can also specify a job manager, define a scheduled database backup and use a notification service to be reminded when some jobs are finished. There is a free Community version and a commercial Enterprise edition. You may also use MONyog, a MySQL Monitor and Advisor.

Basic Aspects of PHP

What is PHP

PHP is a programming language for dynamically built web sites. The most important thing to understand is the difference between HTML and PHP.
In HTML your write your code, upload it, and the user will subsequently download that page along whit all the code. The user’s browser interprets this code and shows the user the page as you intended it.
With PHP it works a bit differently because you don’t actually download the code the author wrote. What happens is that if you want to download a PHP page the code in that file is first processed by the server, and you download the output of the code, as opposed to the whole code as is.

History

PHP development began in 1994 when the programmer Rasmus Lerdorf initially created set of Pearl script he called “”Personal Home Page Tools” to maintain his personal home page. The scripts performed tasks such as displaying his resume and recording his web-page traffic. He announced the release of PHP on June 8,1995. He wrote these scripts as Common Gateway Interface binaries in C, extending them to add the ability to work with Web forms and to communicates with databases and called this implementation “Personal Home Pages/Forms Interpreter” or PHP/FI.PHP/FI could be use to build simple, dynamic Web application. Lerdorf released PHP/FI as “Personal Home Page Tools (PHP Tools) version 1.0” publicly on June 8, 1995, to accelerate bug location and improve the code. This release already had the basic functionality that PHP has today.
Zeev Suraski and Andi Gutmans, two Israeli developers at the Technion IIT, rewrote the parser in 1997 and formed the base of PHP 3, changing the language’s name to the recursive initialism PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor. Afterward, public testing of PHP 3 began, and the official launch came in June 1998. Suraski and Gutmans then started a new rewrite of PHP’s core, producing the Zend Engine in 1999.
On May 22, 2000, PHP 4, powered by the Zend engine 1.0, was released. As of august 2008 this branch is up to version 4.4.9. PHP 4 is no longer under development nor will any security updates be released. On July 13, 2004, PHP 5 was released by the new Zend Engine II. PHP 5 included new feature such as improved support for object-oriented programming, the PHP Data Object extension (which defines a lightweight and consistent interface for accessing databases), and numerous performance enhancements. In 2008 PHP 5 became the only stable version under development. Late static binding had been missing from PHP and was added in version 5.3.
A new major version has been under development alongside PHP 5 for several years. Change in the new code included the removal of register_globals, magic quotes, and safe mode. The reason for the removal was that the register_globals had opened security holes by intentionally allowing run time data injection, and the use of magic quotes had an unpredictable nature. Instead, to escape characters, magic quotes may be replaced with the add slashes () function or more appropriately an escape mechanism specific to the database vendor itself like mysql_real_escape_string() for MySQL. Functions’ that will be removed in the feature versions and have been deprecated in PHP 5.3 will produce a warning if used.
Mani high-profile open-source project ceased to support PHP 4 in new code as of February 5, 2008, because of the GoPHP5 initiative, provided by a consortium of PHP developers promoting the transition from PHP 4 to PHP 5.
Since version 5.4, PHP has native support for Unicode or multibyte strings, allowing strings as well as class-, method-, and function-names to contain non-ASCII character.
PHP interpreters are available on both 32-bit and 64-bit operating systems, but on Microsoft Windows 32-bit compatibility mode while using Internet information Services (IIS) on a 64-bit Windows platform. Experimental 64-bit versions of PHP 5.3.0 were briefly available for MS windows, but have since been removed.

General Usages

PHP is a general-purpose scripting language that is especially suited to server-side web development where PHP generally runs on a web server. Any PHP code in a requested file is executed by the by the PHP runtime, usually to create dynamic web page content or dynamic images used on Web sites or elsewhere. It can also be used for command-line scripting and client-side for graphical user interface (GUI) applications. PHP can be deployed on most Web servers, many operating systems and platforms, and can be use for many relational database management systems (RDBMS). It is available free of charge, and the PHP Group provides the complete source code for users to build, customize and extend for their own use.

PHP Syntax

The PHP interpreter only executes PHP code within its delimiters. Anything outside its delimiters is not processed by PHP. The most common delimiters are <?php to open and ? Or <? To close PHP sections. <scrip language= “php”> and </script> delimiters are also available, as are the shortened forms <? Or <?= (which is used to echo back a string or variable) and ?. as well as ASP-style short forms <% or <%= and %>. While short delimiters are used, they make script files less portable as support for them can be disabled in the PHP code, including HTML.
The first form of delimiters, <?php and ?>, in XHTML and other XML documents, creates correctly formed XML ‘processing instructions’. This means that the resulting mixture of PHP code and other markup in the server-side file is itself well-formed XML.
Variables are prefixed with a dollar symbol, and a type does not need to be specified in advance. Unlike function and class names, variable names are case sensitive. Both double-quote (“”) and heredoc strings provide the ability to interpolate a variable’s value into the string. PHP treats newlines as whitespace in the manner of a free-form language (except when inside string quotes), and statements are terminated by a semicolon. PHP has three types of comments syntax: /**/ marks block and inline comments; // as well as # are used for one-line comments. The echo statement is one of several facilities PHP provide to output text, e.g., to a Web browser.
In terms of keywords and language syntax, PHP is similar to most high level languages that follow the C style syntax if conditions, for and while loops, and function and returns are similar in syntax to languages such as C, C++, Java and Pearl.

How PHP can be applied to a Website

• E-commerce is one of the mayor uses for PHP. From a small business level to an enterprise level, businesses are always looking to create additional streams of revenue on line.
• Building an online community
With an online community, your visitors can help solve each other’s product-related issues, and even answer technical questions. You still have to provide some level of after-sales support, but a community can effectively decrease your workload and provide useful feedback.
• Mailing List
You can write your own script to send e-mail newsletters to your client, or use a ready-made script. PHP mailing lists are an excellent way to keep your clients informed about your services and products, holidays, vacations, and general announcements. Anything you clients need to know can be included in your automated newsletter.

File Compression

Computer file compression is often absolutely necessary in a world of large files and limited storage space. Compression is often a confusing manner to many due to its nature. How can a file be so shrunk in size and yet still retain all of its essential components?

Computer files by nature are redundant. Similar information or even identical information is repeated once, twice, or even more times. Repetition is inherent to the medium; hence, compression is both at times necessary and entirely achievable. Programs designed for file compression remove this redundancy and streamline the file, thus shrinking it in size. Information is listed multiple times in a program, so the file compression client will only list that redundant information once, then, when it is called for, will refer back to this once-listed information multiple times.

File compression is a method of making data smaller so that more of it can be transmitted in less time. Compression takes place via one of several compression standards, including JPG, MPEG, GIF, TIF, and ZIP. Files that contain more sophisticated data, such as audio, video, JAVA, VRML, Shockwave, and other multimedia, are usually compressed quite thoroughly before being made accessible over the Internet.

On-Line Privacy Overview

What are “online communications”?

The term “online communication” refers to reading, writing, and communication via networked computers. Online communication dates back to late 1960s, when U.S. researchers first developed protocols that allowed the sending and receiving of messages via computer. Online communication is a new phenomenon, having first come into existence toward the end of the 20th century. It is growing at one of the fastest rates of any new form of communication in human history, and its long-term impact is expected to be substantial.

What level of privacy can I expect in my online activity?

There are virtually no online activities or services that guarantee absolute privacy. Sometimes, however, an activity that appears to be private may not be.

Can online services track and record my activity?

Yes. It is possible to record virtually all online activities, including which newsgroups or files a subscriber accesses and which web sites are visited. This information can be collected by a subscriber’s own ISP and by web site operators.

What are Cookies?

When you “surf” the web, many web sites deposit data about your visit, called “cookies,” on your hard drive When you return to that site, the cookie data will reveal that you’ve been there before. The web site might offer you products or ads tailored to your interests, based on the contents of the cookie data.

Most cookies are used only by the web site that placed it on your computer. But some, called third-party cookies, communicate data about you to an advertising clearinghouse which in turn shares that data with other online marketers. Your web browser and some software products enable you to detect and delete cookies, including third-party cookies.

What are Web Bugs?

A web bug is a graphic in a web site or an “enhanced” e-mail message that enables a third party to monitor who is reading the page or message. The graphic may be a standard size image that is easily seen, or it may be a nearly invisible one-pixel graphic. The web bug can confirm when the message or web page is viewed and record the IP address of the viewer.

What is workplace monitoring?

It’s the employer’s practice of monitoring the Internet sites that an employee visits.

Can an online service access information stored in my computer without my knowledge?

Yes. Many of the commercial online services automatically download graphics and program upgrades to the user’s home computer. The subscriber is notified of these activities. But other intrusions are not so evident. News reports have documented that some services have admitted to both accidental and intentional prying into the memory of personal computers. Companies typically explain that they collect information such as users’ hardware, software and usage patterns to provide better customer service.

It is difficult to detect these types of intrusions. You should be aware of this potential privacy abuse and investigate new services thoroughly before signing on. Always read the privacy policy and the service agreement of any online service you intend to use.

Can hackers get into my computer?

Yes. When you are using a broadband “always-on” service, you are particularly vulnerable to attacks by hackers. An increasing number of users are accessing the Internet via high-speed cable modems and telephone-based DSL connections. You most install a firewall device that monitors your network activity and allows only the activities you have authorized.

What is spyware and how can I know if it’s on my computer?

Spyware is any software or hardware device that reports your activity. “Adware” spyware is installed by software companies as an additional source of income. “Monitoring” spyware was originally intended for parents and employers to monitor computer activity, including file access and keystroke logging, to protect against improper usage by children and employees. “Diagnostic” spyware is used by software companies to log errors and usage habits to improve the next generation of software. The user is usually not aware that spyware has been installed.

What can I do to protect my privacy in cyberspace?

Create passwords with nonsensical combinations of upper and lower case letters, numbers and symbols, for example tY8%uX. Change your password often.

Assume that your online communications are not private unless you use encryption software. But most encryption programs are not user-friendly and can be inconvenient to use. If you do not use encryption, at least take the following precautions: Do not provide sensitive personal information (phone number, password, address, credit card number, Social Security number, your health information, date of birth, vacation dates, etc.) in chat rooms, forum postings, e-mail messages, or in your online biography.

Be cautious of “start-up” software that registers you as a product user and makes an initial connection to the service for you. Typically, these programs require you to provide financial account data or other personal information, and then upload this information automatically to the service. These programs may be able to access records in your computer without your knowledge. Contact the service for alternative subscription methods.

Check your browser’s cookie settings. We’ve come a long way from the days when browsers hid their cookie activity and gave users no options. Now you may accept or reject all cookies, or you may allow only those cookies generated by the website you are visiting. Be aware that when you use cookie management options, you might delete cookies for websites you trust. You may want to set a security level for trusted websites while blocking cookie activity for all others.

What is Encryption?

Encryption is a method of scrambling an e-mail message or file so that it is gibberish to anyone who does not know how to unscramble it. The privacy advantage of encryption is that anything encrypted is virtually inaccessible to anyone other than the designated recipient. Thus, private information may be encrypted and then transmitted, stored, or distributed without fear that it will be read by others. Strong encryption programs such as PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) are available online.

How programs such as PGP can protect your privacy?

How does PGP help you keep your secret keys secret? RSA secret and public keys must be hundreds of bits long and they are must be chosen randomly. This presents a problem. If PGP were to ask you, a human being, to remember your public key, it would be incontinent, because most human beings do not remember long strings of binary information well. You might write it down. This would be bad, because someone might do a black bag job on you. A black bag job is when a practical cryptoanalyst comes to your house when your are not there with a bunch of locksmithing tools in his black bag. He comes away with your secret key in his black bag. The other alternative would be to store your secret key in a computer file. But this risks someone doing a black bag job on your computer. PGP solves this dilemma by storing both your public and secret keys in computer files called keyrings. But, it stores your secret key encrypted with conventional encryption. Your secret key will be protected with a pass phrase which you must specify every time you wish to use your secret key. (When you decrypt a message or sign a message.) Hopefully, you will choose your pass phrase so that it will be easy for you, as a human being, to remember it.

What is Netiquette?

Netiquette is a set of rules for behaving and interacting properly online.

 

 

 

Ethics and Copyright

What is copyright?

Copyright is a form of protection provided by the United States via its laws that cover the owner to reproduce or permit someone else to reproduce copyrighted works. Copyrightable works include:  literary works such as articles, stories, journals, or computer programs; pictures and graphics, blueprints of architecture; music and song lyrics.

Even if a document or image on the web does not have a copyright notice, it is still protected by copyright laws

The protection is normally documented by a certificate issued for published and unpublished works of original authorship.

The term of copyright is based on when the original work was created, if the copyright was renewed, when the creator/copyright holder may have died, etc.

What is fair use?

Fair use is a limitation on the exclusive rights of copyright holders. The Copyright Act gives copyright holders the exclusive right to reproduce works for a limited time period. Fair use is a limitation on this right. A use that is considered “fair” does not infringe copyright, even if it involves one of the exclusive rights of copyright holders. Congress gave copyright holders a set of exclusive rights for a limited time period, and gave to the public all remaining rights in creative works. The purpose is to give copyright holders an economic incentive to create works that ultimately benefit society as a whole, and by doing so, to promote the progress of science and learning in society.

Courts have previously found that a use was fair where the use of the copyrighted work was socially beneficial. In particular, U.S. courts have recognized the following fair uses: criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, research and parodies.

 

What is considered public domain?

Materials enter the public domain if…

  1. Copyright term has expired
  2. Protection was not renewed (renewal is not available for new works)
  3. The creator voluntarily donated the work to the public domain
  4. The material is a work of the federal government in accordance with 17USC105

This material is free for use and belong to the public.

However, originality must be the first choice and the reward is the taste of satisfaction at the end.

Good Attitude to Design

In this whole new world of designs and creations pretending to be original could be a difficult task but thanks to the generous contribution of all the human resources that parade through the media we can receive a good douse of inspiration.

I think the key to develop ourselves is to maintain a humble spirit to learn from others, perseverance to keep trying, and clear goals to keep us focused.

Why I do what I do?

With a little thought that we all have the potential to affect our environment in a positive or negative way, I would like to use this medium to somehow contribute to a better lifestyle.

In forthcoming publication I would like to address some issues that make us think a bit and perhaps take advantage of different situation in our lives.

I can say today that I write this article as a requirement of my web development class, or enjoy this challenge to develop my full potential.

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